For a long time, rats were a sign of poor hygiene and frightened humanity, becoming harbingers of disease or hunger.The weight of the animal ranges from 37-400 G. Particularly large specimen of gray rats can reach a weight of 0.5 kg.
Classic shades wool – grey and brown, although there are also yellow, orange. The main types of wild rats – gray and black spread throughout. Other rodents live in a strictly defined area.
Home content best suited the following species:
- the standard is a large animal with a long tail and sleek fur;
- satin – animals covered with a thin six, otbelivala blue;
- Dumbo – fun animals with a broad head, a pear-shaped body and large round ears;
- Sphinx – hairless rat with a pink shiny coat;
- tailless – a distinctive feature is the complete absence of a tail.
The head of the rat
The head of the animal has the following features:
- the elongated form;
- large size relative to the body;
- sharp nose;
- little of the eye black;
- small round ears.
Divided into anterior – face, and back. From the body the head of the rat separated by a short and thick neck. The outer ear looks like a mobile sink. From its Foundation deep into the temporal bone moves the ear canal.
The muzzle includes:
- of the orbit;
- chewing area.
The mouth slit located on the front and side edges of the muzzle. Nostrils placed at the tip of the nose are close to each other. Right beneath the nose starts a vertical groove through which the upper incisors are exposed, even if the rodent keeps his mouth shut.
Near the tip of the nose has whiskers. The tactile organs that help the animal to navigate and assess the objects on the road. The eyes are set deep, protected by movable eyelids. For rodents is also characterized by the presence of the third eyelid – nictitating membrane, and the red glow of the eyes.
How many teeth do rats
Specific dental system is a distinctive feature and wild rodents. The total number of teeth is 16, of which 12 are indigenous chewing molars and 2 pairs of long incisors in the Central part of the jaw. Between them and the molars there is a significant gap.
The purpose of incisors – biting. Sharp and sturdy, they allow the animal to eat not only grain but also insects and smaller animals. Because of this wild rat often plays the role of a predator. Also a particular strength of these pairs of teeth allows rodents to cope with wood, concrete and steel wire.
The incisors of rats grow constantly therefore they need regular sharpening. When the content of decorative animals, you need to provide them with special devices, otherwise the animal may suffer from excessive regrown teeth. Enamel is present only on the anterior surface of the incisors. The back is coated with a dentine – a softer material that wears out quickly.
The molars are provided with bumps or ridges for successful chewing of food. In adults they are erased. The enamel is preserved only on the sides, the middle is also covered with dentin.
The body of the rodent
The body of the rat has an elongated shape. Divided into:
- spinal-thoracic spine, which included the dorsal and interscapular region;
- lumbar-abdominal, subdivided into the belly and lower back;
- the Sacro-gluteal, including pelvic and sacral region.
Wool: the covered body of a rat
The skin of the rodent is covered with ragged hair. Thick and long guard hairs designed to zazhityh and skin from external damage. The undercoat, which is also called the under-wool, necessary for maintaining body temperature.
All the hairs are composed of Horny substance. The base is attached to the hair bag, into which open the ducts of the sebaceous glands. Allocated grease is used for lubricating hair and skin, providing elasticity.
The body temperature of rats
Normal body temperature rats of decorative – 38,5-39,5 degrees. With a slight increase it can be assumed stress, heat stroke or initial stage of infection. Temperature 40.5 degrees, signal for urgent treatment in the clinic, but to bring it down immediately. This is done by using ice packs or wiping the ears with small pieces of ice.
Lowering the temperature much more dangerous and evidence of neglect of infectious disease or shock. In this scenario, you must pick it up with warmers, and then immediately take your pet to the vet.
The front paws of the rat include:
Rat's rear legs are divided into:
- lower leg;
- the heel region;
- the region of the Tarsus;
How many fingers do rats
Fingers rats are very agile. On the fore feet the thumb is reduced, looks like a short stump. The rest of the fingers are fully developed.
On hind legs there are all 5 toes in size, they more than on forelegs. Palms and soles naked.
A complete representation of the body structure pet helps to make the right choices and to acquire a healthy specimen that will delight the owner for several years.