Before you get a Guinea pig, it would be superfluous to determine its physiological data.The structure of the Guinea pig, its body looks like a cylinder, its length is 25 cm. By weight, the males are larger – up to half a kg, females a little more than kg. the Coat is smooth and quickly grows 1 mm a day.
The teeth of Guinea pigs
This rodent has incisors that are well developed and sharp. They grow throughout the life of the pig. It happens that the cutters reach such sizes that they are able to cause animal discomfort and even injure the tongue or lips. Fangs in the Guinea pig there, and molars have special folds and bogorotsky.
In the lower jaw only 10 teeth: two lozhnokorenny, six indigenous and two cutter. The lower jaw has good mobility, it can move in different directions, not just forward and backward. Upper jaw: two lozhnokorenny, six indigenous, and a pair of cutters, which are shorter than the lower jaw.
Front teeth have strong enamel, the back is soft and wears off quickly.
In the body of a rodent 258 bones. The skeleton of a Guinea pig:
- tail bone – 7 PCs.;
- rib – 13 pairs;
- the spine 34 of the bone;
- hind legs – 72 bones.
Despite the fact that the number of bones in the limbs so much, it speaks to their strength. Paws Guinea pigs are very fragile and vulnerable to fractures, as well as various damage.
A tail in the Guinea pig
The tail of a Guinea pig is quite inconspicuous. The tail section of the spine consists of seven bones. They are very small and located near the pelvis of rodents. This is misleading and many people believe that the tail does not exist.
How many fingers in the Guinea pig
Pigs have very short legs. Front much less than the rear. Fingers in the Guinea pig different quantity. On their hind legs with three fingers, and on the front four. They resemble small hooves.
The major systems of a rodent and their features
The circulatory system of Guinea pigs is similar to the structure of other rodents. Heart weighs a little more than 2 years rate up to 350 per minute.
The respiratory system is very sensitive to various infections and bacteria. The frequency of respiratory movements to 120-130 (norm). The structure of the lung is unusual and different: right is divided into four parts and heavier, and the left is divided into three parts.
Gastrointestinal tract this animal is quite large and well developed. In the stomach usually there is food, it reaches 30 cm Intestine is much longer than the body, almost twelve times.
Anatomy of the Guinea pigs is such that the food of these rodents is digested for a long time, approximately about a week, so to introduce something new in the diet should be very carefully. Otherwise it will lead to dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.
One of the important organs cecum. It produces a soft stool, it helps to break down cellulose is the primary substance in the diet.
The structure of the body of the rodent has another feature in the presence of feces pocketwhich is located on the bottom, right under the anus. It is the gland responsible for the production of liquid, dense and with a peculiar odor. The owner needs to follow regular hygienic cycle.
Adult pig well-functioning excretory system. Rodent produces per day in urine in quantities of 50 ml (uric acid 3.5%).
The owner should pay special attention to the lymph nodes of the Guinea pig if she's acting kind of unusually sluggish or does not eat. They are near the ear on the neck.
If lymph nodes are swollen, you should immediately contact your veterinarian. This may indicate an abscess.
However, in rodents that rarely happens.
Features vision, hearing and smelling Guinea pigs
The external structure of the eye of rodents has interesting features. Their location is not in the center and on the sides. This gives the animal the opportunity to survey all around. But there are also disadvantages – suffers from frontal vision, this blind area. Basically, the animals are short-sighted and rely only on smell. It occupies an important role in the life of this rodent.
Smell they can determine the gender and how there is the ability to reproduce. The females and the males have a strong smell, it is a thousand times greater than the sensitivity of the human sense of smell. This allows the animal to feel the smells that people don't even perceive.
On the face of the pig there are tactile hairs, they are a landmark. The rodent even in complete darkness can determine the width and the depth of the hole, is it possible to get into it or not.
Also a Guinea pig is in a more advantageous position in contrast to rats and mice, if you compare the hearing.
The internal structure of the ear they have a very interesting so – called snail consists of four turns. Basically, mammals have two and a half. People perceive sound not more than 15000 Hertz, and a Guinea pig – to 30,000 Hz.
General physiological data of a rodent
The weight of Guinea pigs up to 2 kg and length up to 30 cm in healthy porcine body temperature is not above 39 degrees. Sexual maturity of females – up to 40 days, males up to 60 days.
Pregnancy in females occurs about seventy of her. One litter consists of five pups. The life expectancy of Guinea pigs for about eight years, but there are long-lived (10 years).