Guinea pigs – fun clever rodents that are born with 20 sharp teeth, which are necessary for an animal to grind coarse food and maintaining the normal life of a pet.All dental diseases have a negative impact on the growth and overall health furry animal.
How many teeth Guinea pig
Most people don't know how many teeth Guinea pig. Many people mistakenly believe that the furry rodents have only 4 massive front cutter. Actually for grinding the food in the animals, there are still back teeth. On the lower and upper jaw in Guinea pigs is the same number of white teeth: 2 long incisors and cheek teeth 8 — a pair of premolars and three pairs of molars in total in the oral cavity of a healthy animal must be 20 teeth. Healthy Guinea pigs teeth should be of different lengths. The teeth of the mandible 1.5 times as long as the same teeth in the upper jaw.
Physiological norm for home rodent – the lack of fangs, toothless space between the incisors and premolar teeth called the diastema, the structure of the teeth is characteristic of Guinea pigs and chinchillas.
The structural features of the jaws and teeth of a Guinea pig
Incisors in Guinea pigs is very massive, the size of lower front teeth more than the upper. The lower teeth have a convex surface, and the upper front teeth slightly concave. With proper occlusion the incisors should not collide. Between them there is a space vertically and horizontally. Tooth enamel covers the front teeth only outside. So there is a constant abrasion of the teeth from the inner surface and the formation of the necessary cutting surface of the cutters.
The cheek teeth of Guinea pigs have slightly rough or wrinkled surface. A distinctive feature of indigenous family pet is a constant growth not only crowns, but roots or "reserve crowns", as the true roots of the teeth in Guinea pigs available.
Lower jaw in Guinea pigs is a kind of knife. It moves forwards, backwards and sideways that you need to cut hard food. The upper jaw works as a dispenser, she bites needed for a one time serving of food.
With proper diet all the teeth are worn down and grow evenly, so extra care of your teeth furry pet is not required.
Symptoms of dental disease in Guinea pigs
A pet with dental issues devoid of the ability to eat normally, which negatively affects their health.
Weight loss until a critical value is deadly to a small animal.
To determine the presence of dental pathologies in Guinea pigs can be characteristic symptoms:
- the animal profusely drooling, wet the hair on the face in the result of a physiological increase of saliva because of a violation of the ability to chew food and lack of closure of the mouth due to his teeth;
- the Guinea pig is not eating solid food for a long time goes through the food, trying to eat softer food, can completely refuse to eat, even favorite treats, which leads to loss of weight and the development of anorexia;
- a small animal chewing on long pieces of food, trying to grind food one side of the jaw during chewing, it is possible to notice too active movement of the ears due to the difficulty of making food. Sometimes the food falls out of mouth or spits out the animal yourself too hard food;
- pet can't bite a piece of hard vegetable or fruit when treats treats runs up to the food but not eat it;
- furry pet is rapidly losing weight, which can be determined by visual review and basic weighing animal;
- diarrhea or constipation, developing in violation of the chewing and swallowing of food;
- malocclusion, which manifests itself full closing of the cutters, the teeth going down on each other, a bulging or grinding of the teeth at an angle;
- the content of streaks of blood in the saliva resulting in damage of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity sharp edges, new crowns;
- mucous or purulent discharge from the nose and eyes at the growing tooth roots in the sinuses, or soft tissues near the eyes;
- the swelling of the eyes and increase the eyeball due to the formation of the maxillary abscesses, asymmetry of face and tight of swelling on the mandible at the mandibular abscesses;
- rupture, fistula on the cheeks with penetrating injuries of the mucous membrane of the regrown teeth.
IMPORTANT!!! Dental diseases in Guinea pigs are the reason for urgent visit to the veterinarian.
Causes of dental problems in Guinea pigs
Dental pathology in the furry rodents can be induced by:
- an unbalanced diet, mainly feeding a soft feed, no hay and forage are deprived of the natural teeth physical activity necessary for their proper erase;
- hereditary diseases and congenital anomalies of the bite;
- trauma to the teeth on the cage floor or in the fall, resulting in the displacement of the jaws, the deformation of the teeth that can cause the formation of malocclusion, facial abscesses, fluxes and stomatitis;
- chronic systemic pathology, in which the animal refuses to feed, resulting in the regrowth of teeth.
- autoimmune diseases;
- the lack of calcium and vitamin C;
- eating hay treated with the herbicides or with fluorine-containing drugs.
Common dental diseases in Guinea pigs
In Guinea pigs most often are the following types of dental diseases.
Trauma to the teeth
Guinea pigs often break the teeth when you fall, trying to gnaw through the bars of the cage, fights with other dogs. If a pet has a broken tooth, a possible cause can be a deficiency in the body of a small mammal of calcium salts and vitamin C. In a situation when teeth are broken off part without damage to the crowns, be sure that the opposite teeth do not hurt the mucous membrane of the oral cavity in order to prevent the development of stomatitis.
Should immediately contact the veterinary clinic for trimming of teeth if:
- the tooth broke at the root;
- left sharp jagged debris;
- there is gingival bleeding;
- a Guinea pig broke the upper teeth;
- there is bad breath.
To teeth have grown in correctly, the procedure of grinding and grinding of the teeth must be done in conditions of veterinary clinics with the use of painkillers.
From the diet of the animal after this procedure is recommended to exclude roughage and grain. If a Guinea pig after trimming the teeth to not eat anything you can feed a small animal from a syringe without a needle pureed fruits, vegetables and root crops. Frequent breakage of the teeth needs to be feed a diet rich in calcium and ascorbic acid.
If Guinea pigs fell out of the upper tooth, reasons for concern exist. From home periodically rodent teeth fall out.
Loss and loosening of no more than two teeth is a physiological norm.
New teeth grow within 2-3 weeks, the young of the year to drop all the baby teeth. Tooth loss is accompanied by loss of appetite, so the period of regeneration of a new tooth from the diet beloved pet exclude all roughage and grain, fruits and vegetables should be given in pureed form. If a Guinea pig fell at the same time the upper teeth with the lower teeth, so there is a loss of more than 3 teeth should contact the veterinary clinic. A similar situation can be observed in the lack of calcium salts, and the inflammation of the gums.
Malocclusion Guinea pig – malocclusion due to abnormal regrowth of the front teeth. Sometimes there is increased growth of the anterior and cheek teeth. The disease is caused by violation of the feeding regime, hereditary or infectious diseases.
Regrown incisors in Guinea pigs look very long and protruding. There is a shift of the jaw and asymmetry face. In pathology there is strong growth in lower molars with immersion in the language of sharp edges of the posterior teeth. The upper molars grow towards the cheeks, which leads to the development of stomatitis and the formation of abscesses, flux, fistulas and perforation of the cheek. Rodent mouth is not closed, the animal is not able to eat. In the pathology observed profuse salivation, sometimes streaked with blood, exhaustion.
The illness must be treated in a veterinary clinic. After oral examination and radiographic examination are assigned therapeutic activities.
For the elimination of disease apply irrigation of the oral cavity of a Guinea pig with antiseptic solutions and decoction of anti-inflammatory herbs. The abscess is opened surgically. The regrown teeth grind and polished with the use of anesthesia.
To restore the jaw muscles is applied elastic bandage.
Elongation of tooth roots
The roots of the teeth in Guinea pigs is considered to be a backup or subgingival part of the crown, which in pathological elongation grows into the soft tissue, causing eye damage or nasal sinuses. The disease is characterized by severe pain, lack of appetite, progressive emaciation, mucous or purulent secretions from the nose and eyes, the formation of a dense swellings on the jaws of the animal, fluxes, increasing the orbit of the eye and asymmetry of the muzzle of the animal.
Treatment of pathology after a study of x-ray images of the jaws involves cutting half-inch crowns. Resulting in physiological decrease tooth roots. In advanced cases, shows the removal of the patient's tooth.
Prevention of dental diseases in Guinea pigs
Dental problems in a pet can be avoided by following simple preventive measures:
- diet Guinea pigs should be balanced, for the most part consist of roughage and hay. Goodies, juicy and soft food are metered. Prohibits the feeding of a pet from the human table;
- animals must be purchased from conscientious breeders, excluding from breeding rodents with congenital diseases of the teeth;
- it is necessary to properly equip the cell to prevent of falls and injuries small animal;
- not allowed together content aggressive Pets;
- pregnant females and youngsters should get enough foods rich in calcium, vitamins C and D;
- once a week weigh the animal, so as not to miss critical weight loss;
- at the first sign of dental pathologies – the refusal to eat, salivation and rapid emaciation, should immediately contact the veterinary clinic.
Properly feed and care for Guinea pigs. A balanced diet and careful attention of a loving owner can protect Pets from the unpleasant dental pathologies.